Pinus contorta ssp. bolanderi: Pinus is the Latin name for P. pinea; contorta or 'twisted,' referring to the species' twisted needles; bolanderi, named after Henry Nicholas Bolander (1831-1897), a collector of plants in Yosemite National Park and California State Botanist in 1864.
This subspecies is endemic to the Pygmy Forest in Mendocino Co., California where there are coastal terrace soils with claypan or hardpan. It is closely related to P. contorta contorta and P. contorta murrayana.
Bolander pine often grows in thickets of cane-like trees that, although very small, are biologically mature and bear fertile cones.
Needles 1.25-2" long, 2 per fascicle, often twisted.
Reddish immature cones.
Asymmetric seed cones ~3 inches long remain closed on the stem for many years.